Biology Major (B.S.) Course of Study

The Bachelor of Science biology major requires a minimum of 60 credit hours.

All prerequisites must be completed prior to enrollment in the following courses.
Corequisites must be taken during the same semester.

BIOL 172: Exploring Molecular Biology
3 credit hours

Recommended prerequisite or co-requisite: CHEM 115 or CHEM 238
This course examines the structure and function of nucleic acids and proteins. The molecular mechanisms of replication, transcription, mRNA processing and translation will be emphasized. In addition, regulation of these processes will be explored. Lecture and laboratory. Intended for students majoring in biology or related disciplines.

BIOL 181: Mechanisms of Genetic Inheritance
3 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 172
This course will apply the knowledge acquired in BIOL 172 to the inheritance patterns of genetic traits between individuals and within populations. Lecture and laboratory.

BIOL 182: Evolution
2 credit hours

Prerequisite: BIOL 181. 
An introduction to the principles of evolutionary biology, including the history, processes and patterns of evolution as well as systematic biology.

BIOL 200: Ecology
3 credit hours

Co-requisite:  BIOL 182
An introduction to ecological principles, emphasizing processes and patterns within the six sub disciplines of ecology. The laboratory will integrate common field methods with experimental design and data analysis. Lecture and laboratory. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

BIOL 225: Biostatistics
3 credit hours

Prerequisite: BIOL 182. 
An introduction to biostatistical concepts and methods commonly encountered in biology. The course will cover basic descriptive statistics as well as experimental design and techniques for testing hypotheses (e.g., analysis of variance/covariance, regression analysis, and nonparametric statistics). Three lecture or laboratory hours.

BIOL 351: Junior Seminar I
1 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 181. 
This course provides biology majors with information on pre? and post?graduate opportunities, prepares them for graduate studies related to biology by developing a resume and statement of purpose, and gives them experience speaking publicly on biological topics using appropriate technology. S/U grading.

BIOL 352: Junior Seminar II
1 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 351. 
Using the scientific literature and in consultation with a faculty mentor, students will develop a proposal for an independent research project in the biological sciences and publicly present the proposal to their peers. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

BIOL 494: Senior Seminar II
1 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 483 or 484. 
Students present the results of their Senior Seminar I project to faculty and peers in a public forum.

One (1) course selected from the following list:

BIOL 483: Senior Seminar I: Practicum
3 credit hours

Prerequisite: BIOL 200. 
Students complete an off?campus work experience in a professional field of interest and write a literature review on a biological topic related to the profession in consultation with a faculty mentor. A minimum of 135 hours must be completed during the off-campus experience.

BIOL 484: Senior Seminar I: Research
3 credit hours

Prerequisite: BIOL 200. 
Students complete an original field, laboratory, database, or literature research project in consultation with a faculty mentor. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

At least one (1) course selected from the following list:

BIOL 201: Biodiversity
3 credit hours

Prerequisite: BIOL 200. 
An introduction to the trends and patterns of biological diversity and our understanding of the biosphere. The class will focus on the evolution of genomes and systems using several model organisms. The generation and loss of biodiversity will be examined. Lecture and laboratory.

BIOL 307: Botany
4 credit hours

Prerequisite: BIOL 200
Introduction to the photosynthetic way of life in algae and plants. This course will consider plant structural and functional adaptations related to water retention and distribution, gas exchange, light absorption and energy conversion, anti-gravitational support, reproduction and dispersal; followed by a comparative study of the main plant groups from algae to flowering plants, emphasizing structural diversity and evolutionary trends. The laboratory exercises will present an introduction to plant (and algae) cells, tissues and organs through comparative anatomy and morphology analyses.

BIOL 309: General Zoology
4 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 200
A survey of major animal phyla including protozoans with an emphasis on comparative structure and function, taxonomy, fundamental life processes and ecological interactions. Lecture and laboratory.

BIOL 310: Field and Systematic Botany
4 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 200
A taxonomical survey of flowering plants. This course will discuss history, theories and methods of classification, identification, nomenclature and description of plants, followed by taxonomical characteristics of the main plant families. Laboratory exercises and field trips will focus on the use of taxonomic keys, construction of floral diagrams and formulas, identification and recognition of local flora, preparation of field data records and herbarium specimens. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

BIOL 313: Advanced Microbiology
4 credit hours

Prerequisites:  BIOL 181 or CHEM 238
This course will examine the unique physiology of the Archaea and Procaryotae and their roles in ecology and human disease. Techniques for identification of these organisms also will be studied. Lecture and laboratory.

BIOL 314: Field and Systematic Zoology
4 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 200
A study of zoological natural history and systematics with emphasis on vertebrate biodiversity. Field and laboratory exercises on identification, sampling methods and population dynamics.

BIOL 329: Introduction to Marine Biology
4 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 200.  
A study of the biology, taxonomy and ecology of marine fishes, corals and invertebrates. Protocols used in field studies and collection of data will be studied in the lab portion of this course. The lab portion of this course will also consist of a ten-day study abroad trip to a Caribbean coral reef during the winter inter-session. Students will have exposure to a variety of marine habitats as well as hands?on experiences applying course information in daily diving expeditions and in the design and execution of a marine research project. Students taking the class are required to take the study abroad portion of this course. Offered fall semester of even-numbered years.

BIOL 330: Field Study in Marine Biology
3 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 329.  
This field course in marine biology is the companion course to BIOL 329. It is a field study that applies the knowledge gained in the lecture portion of the class regarding the biology, taxonomy and ecology of marine fishes, corals, coral disease and other reef life forms. This portion of the course consists of a ten?day study abroad trip to a Caribbean coral reef where students will have exposure to a variety of marine habitats as well as hands- on experiences applying course information in daily diving expeditions and in the design and execution of a marine research project. Dive certification required. Offered winter term of odd-numbered years. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

BIOL 341: Limnology
4 credit hours

Prerequisites:  BIOL 200CHEM 238 and CHEM 238-L. 
Physical, chemical and biological functions of freshwater ecosystems with an emphasis on local aquatic organisms and their habitats. Stream geomorphology, lake structure and the relationships between land use and water quality will be addressed. Lecture, laboratory and field work. Laboratory and field work include mapping, lake models, water chemistry and surveys of taxonomic diversity. One Saturday field trip is required. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

BIOL 373: Herpetology
4 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 200. 
An introduction to the biology, ecology and evolution of amphibians and non?avian reptiles. The morphology, taxonomy and biogeography of Missouri species within these groups will be emphasized in the laboratory with day, evening and possibly weekend field trips required. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

*BIOL 329 and BIOL 330 must be taken together.

At least thirteen (13) unique, unduplicated hours of coursework from the following list:

BIOL 301: Advanced Evolutionary Biology
3 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 182. 
A study of organic evolution, its processes at a variety of scales, and its relationship to society. Primary topics include the history of evolutionary thought, population genetics, mechanisms of speciation, phylogeny and evolution of development.

BIOL 306: Medical Botany
3 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 200 
Survey of plants which have medicinal value. Emphasis on the importance of botanical products in modern medicine. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

BIOL 307: Botany
4 credit hours

Prerequisite: BIOL 200
Introduction to the photosynthetic way of life in algae and plants. This course will consider plant structural and functional adaptations related to water retention and distribution, gas exchange, light absorption and energy conversion, anti-gravitational support, reproduction and dispersal; followed by a comparative study of the main plant groups from algae to flowering plants, emphasizing structural diversity and evolutionary trends. The laboratory exercises will present an introduction to plant (and algae) cells, tissues and organs through comparative anatomy and morphology analyses.

BIOL 308: Immunology
3 credit hours

Prerequisites:  BIOL 181 or CHEM 238. 
A study of the immune response and its relationship to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disease. Topics include immune systems, immunopathology and antibodies.

BIOL 309: General Zoology
4 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 200
A survey of major animal phyla including protozoans with an emphasis on comparative structure and function, taxonomy, fundamental life processes and ecological interactions. Lecture and laboratory.

BIOL 310: Field and Systematic Botany
4 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 200
A taxonomical survey of flowering plants. This course will discuss history, theories and methods of classification, identification, nomenclature and description of plants, followed by taxonomical characteristics of the main plant families. Laboratory exercises and field trips will focus on the use of taxonomic keys, construction of floral diagrams and formulas, identification and recognition of local flora, preparation of field data records and herbarium specimens. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

BIOL 312: Advanced Ecology
4 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 200.  
A study of ecological principles, focusing on a modern understanding of ecological systems, patterns and processes. The laboratory will include common field techniques and emphasize experimental design and data analysis. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

BIOL 313: Advanced Microbiology
4 credit hours

Prerequisites:  BIOL 181 or CHEM 238
This course will examine the unique physiology of the Archaea and Procaryotae and their roles in ecology and human disease. Techniques for identification of these organisms also will be studied. Lecture and laboratory.

BIOL 314: Field and Systematic Zoology
4 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 200
A study of zoological natural history and systematics with emphasis on vertebrate biodiversity. Field and laboratory exercises on identification, sampling methods and population dynamics.

BIOL 316: Comparative Anatomy
5 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 182. 
A critical study of the structural/functional relationships of organs and systems of the vertebrates. Taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and morphological adaptations of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals will be emphasized. Lecture and laboratory.

BIOL 317: Vertebrate Embryology
4 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 182. 
A comparative study of the biochemical and cellular mechanisms associated with the morphological development of vertebrates. Embryological development of the frog, chick and human will be emphasized. Lecture and laboratory.

BIOL 320: Vertebrate Physiology
4 credit hours

Prerequisites:  BIOL 181 and CHEM 315. 
General cellular physiology and the functioning of tissues and organ systems in the vertebrate classes, including human beings. Lecture and laboratory.

BIOL 321: Comprehensive Human Anatomy
5 credit hours

Prerequisites:  BIOL 181 or CHEM 238. 
A comprehensive study of the structural/functional relationships of organs and organ systems of humans. Lecture and laboratory.

BIOL 322: Advanced Genetics
4 credit hours

Prerequisites: BIOL 181 and CHEM 238. 
A study of the molecular basis of gene expression and the mechanisms by which genetic material is inherited. Lecture and laboratory. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

BIOL 324: Cellular and Molecular Biology
3 credit hours

Prerequisite: BIOL 181. Recommended prerequisite: BIOL 336 and CHEM 315. 
Advanced molecular mechanisms of gene expression and control. Methods of genetic engineering and production of transgenic organisms. Lecture. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

BIOL 325: Epidemiology
3 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 181. 
A study of epidemiological theory and practice. The distribution of health related problems in a population and the application of this theory to control health problems will be examined. Areas included in this study will be measures of disease occurrences, causal effects and statistical analysis of these events.

BIOL 329: Introduction to Marine Biology
4 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 200.  
A study of the biology, taxonomy and ecology of marine fishes, corals and invertebrates. Protocols used in field studies and collection of data will be studied in the lab portion of this course. The lab portion of this course will also consist of a ten-day study abroad trip to a Caribbean coral reef during the winter inter-session. Students will have exposure to a variety of marine habitats as well as hands?on experiences applying course information in daily diving expeditions and in the design and execution of a marine research project. Students taking the class are required to take the study abroad portion of this course. Offered fall semester of even-numbered years.

BIOL 330: Field Study in Marine Biology
3 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 329.  
This field course in marine biology is the companion course to BIOL 329. It is a field study that applies the knowledge gained in the lecture portion of the class regarding the biology, taxonomy and ecology of marine fishes, corals, coral disease and other reef life forms. This portion of the course consists of a ten?day study abroad trip to a Caribbean coral reef where students will have exposure to a variety of marine habitats as well as hands- on experiences applying course information in daily diving expeditions and in the design and execution of a marine research project. Dive certification required. Offered winter term of odd-numbered years. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

BIOL 333: Histology
4 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 181. 
An in?depth look at the microscopic structure of the vertebrate body. Study of cells, tissues and organs will provide an understanding of the complex nature of the relationship between form and function in vertebrates. Lecture and laboratory.

BIOL 334: Developmental Biology
3 credit hours

Prerequisite: BIOL 181
A study of the stages and mechanisms of embryonic development in animals. Both classic experimental embryology and the genetic and molecular regulation of invertebrate and vertebrate animal development will be covered. The course will provide a comparative investigation of both morphology and molecular mechanisms while highlighting the similarities and differences between nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

BIOL 337: Introduction to Virology
3 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 181
An introduction to how viruses replicate and cause disease. Survey of major groups of animal viruses is included. Course offered only in summer and online.

BIOL 341: Limnology
4 credit hours

Prerequisites:  BIOL 200CHEM 238 and CHEM 238-L. 
Physical, chemical and biological functions of freshwater ecosystems with an emphasis on local aquatic organisms and their habitats. Stream geomorphology, lake structure and the relationships between land use and water quality will be addressed. Lecture, laboratory and field work. Laboratory and field work include mapping, lake models, water chemistry and surveys of taxonomic diversity. One Saturday field trip is required. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

BIOL 373: Herpetology
4 credit hours

Prerequisite:  BIOL 200. 
An introduction to the biology, ecology and evolution of amphibians and non?avian reptiles. The morphology, taxonomy and biogeography of Missouri species within these groups will be emphasized in the laboratory with day, evening and possibly weekend field trips required. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

BIOL 378: Advanced Human Physiology I
5 credit hours

Prerequisites: BIOL 181 and CHEM 315
The first section of this course deals with cell signaling mechanisms, such as c?AMP and G?proteins, as well as receptor functions. The section deals with electrophysiology and the function of the nervous muscular system, and the general physiology of the cardiovascular system. Subjects will be covered through reading from text and journal articles, lecture presentation and laboratory projects.

BIOL 379: Advanced Human Physiology II
5 credit hours

Prerequisite: BIOL 378
This course will allow students to acquire an in-depth understanding of the organ system functions of the human body, to include: respiratory system, digestive system, renal physiology, immune system, endocrine system, and reproductive systems. The material will be covered through readings from text and journal articles, lecture presentations, and laboratory projects.

Other Required Courses:

CHEM 238: Inorganic Chemistry
3 credit hours

A fundamental course in the study of inorganic chemistry. Topics include atomic structure, chemical bonding, molecular structure, nomenclature of inorganic compounds, fundamentals of inorganic complexes and an introduction to the chemistry of main group elements.

CHEM 238-L: Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory
1 credit hours

A fundamental laboratory course in the study of inorganic chemistry. Topics include the preparation of inorganic complexes, resolution of chiral transition metal compounds, ion conductivity and a preparation of a main group inorganic compound.

MATH 231: Calculus I
4 credit hours

Prerequisite:  Two years of high school algebra and one semester of high school trigonometry. 
A study of the fundamental principles of analytic geometry and calculus with an emphasis on differentiation.

PHYS 211: General Physics I
5 credit hours

Co-requisite:  MATH 231. 
The principles of mechanics, heat, sound, light, electricity and some topics from atomic and nuclear physics are presented. Calculus and vector analysis are used extensively. Intended for science majors. The workshop format — integrated laboratory and lecture — emphasizes experiment, data collection and analysis, and group work. Three two-hour sessions per week. Offered fall semester.

Either

CHEM 312: Organic Chemistry Reactions
3 credit hours

Prerequisite: CHEM 238. 
This lecture course studies the chemistry of all major organic functional groups in one semester. Topics include nomenclature, stereochemistry and some mechanisms and theory. Emphasis is placed on the reactions and their application in synthesis.

CHEM 312-L: Organic Chemistry Reactions Lab
2 credit hours

Prerequisite: CHEM 238-L
This laboratory course has a 1?hour lecture component that introduces the lab and complements CHEM 312. It develops organic lab skills and techniques through organic reaction experiments and applications of spectroscopy and instrumentation.

Or

CHEM 315: Organic Chemistry
3 credit hours

Prerequisite: CHEM 238
This lecture course is an in-depth study of organic functional group chemistry of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alkyl halides, aromatics and alcohols. Topics include nomenclature, stereochemistry, mechanisms, and theory.

CHEM 315-L: Organic Chemistry Laboratory
2 credit hours

Prerequisite: CHEM 238-L
This laboratory course has a 1?hour lecture component that introduces the lab and complements CHEM 315. It develops organic lab skills and techniques with extensive hands?on experience and organic application of spectroscopy and instrumentation

CHEM 415: Advanced Organic Chemistry
3 credit hours

Prerequisite: CHEM 315.  
This lecture course continues in-depth study of organic functional group chemistry of carbonyl containing compounds and amines. Topics include spectroscopy, mechanisms, theory and an introduction to biochemistry and metabolic pathways.

CHEM 415-L: Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory
2 credit hours

Prerequisite:  CHEM 315-L or CHEM 312-L.  
A laboratory course has a 1?hour lecture component that introduces the lab and complements CHEM 415. It continues development of organic lab skills and techniques. Topics covered will include multi-step synthesis, open- ended projects involving experimental design and an introduction to enzyme catalysis and stereochemical control.

One (1) course selected from the following list:

BIOL 344: Toxicology
3 credit hours

Prerequisites:  BIOL 200CHEM 238 and CHEM 238-L
This course examines the basic concepts of the effects of toxins on human health, ways toxins are encountered and the consequences for individual and future generations. Methods of treatment also are discussed.

BIOL 350: Exercise Physiology
3 credit hours

Prerequisite: BIOL 110 or BIOL 172BIOL 206. 
Physiological effects on the human organism under different intensities, durations and environments.

BIOL 327: Psychopharmacology
3 credit hours

Prerequisite: BIOL 172 or PSYC 356.  
This course will explore the effects of drugs on behavior as well as how these effects are mediated by changes in synaptic activity. Emphasis is given to psychoactive drugs, such as alcohol, barbiturates, inhalants, benzodiazepines, psychostimulants, psychedelics, analgesics and antidepressants. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

CHEM 336: Biochemistry
3 credit hours

Prerequisite: CHEM 315 or CHEM 312. Recommended prerequisite: CHEM 327.  
A lecture course that studies the structure and function of biological molecules. Topics include enzyme kinetics, synthesis and degradation of biological molecules, and energy production. Emphasis will be placed on enzyme mechanisms and regulation.

PSYC 348: Psychoneuroimmunology
3 credit hours

Prerequisite: BIOL 172 or PSYC 356
Examines the bidirectional interaction between the brain, behavior and the immune system. Students in this course will study both human-and animal?based literature. Topics include the brain, behavior and immune interface, behavioral and psychosocial characteristics linked with immune function, the impact of stress and coping, sickness behavior, and immunoenhancement. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

PSYC 356: Biopsychology
3 credit hours

Examines the physiological, ontogenetic and functional foundations of human and animal behavior. Emphasizes central nervous system mechanisms that mediate processes such as arousal and sleep, hunger and satiety, learning and memory, aggression and violence, human psychopathology, and the psychoactive properties of recreational and therapeutic drugs.

One (1) course selected from the following list:

PHIL 216: What is Knowledge?
3 credit hours

Every discipline (whether the sciences, humanities or social sciences) makes claims to knowledge that practitioners in those disciplines take seriously. Consequently, any serious practitioner of a discipline must ask: “How does my discipline define knowledge and so make claims about what is true? What are the limits, strengths and weaknesses of such methods of knowing?” Clearly, not all claims to knowledge are equally worthy of our assent, so it is crucial that a practitioner of any field be able to investigate these questions. Armed with such an understanding of knowledge, a practitioner of any field is given the tools to be more critical of the claims of his/her own field and those of others. Given these concerns and questions, in this foundational course we will survey the various origins and sources of knowledge, the different ways in which knowledge could be justified, the limits and possibilities of those various approaches and the ways in which skepticism about knowledge can be generated as well as avoided when different methods of knowledge are employed. This course has been approved as an Honors qualified course.

PHIL 277: Philosophy of Science
3 credit hours

Our world is embedded within a powerful narrative that sees science as the epistemic path towards understanding what reality is and how it behaves, providing science with a tremendous amount of authority and power in modern discourse (cultural, scientific, and interpersonal). Is this power and authority legitimate? In this course we will analyze science philosophically, questioning the assumptions underlying the scientific method, asking whether science is objective or value neutral, and asking whether science makes historical progress, or whether science can ever reveal anything to us about the true nature of reality itself.